Professor Janet Krska
Professor of Clinical & Professional Practice
Although I have been a registered pharmacist since 1977, I started my working life as a scientist, with a PhD in psychopharmacology obtained from the University of Aston, followed by a post-doctoral position in North-West England studying serum levels of antipsychotic and antimuscarinic drugs in schizophrenia. My interest in researching into the practice of pharmacy started when I moved to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary in 1985, where I studied the development of formularies and guidelines, working with Professor James C Petrie, the founder of SIGN (Scottish Inter-Collegiate Guidelines Network). Since then my research interests have diversified into areas such as advice-giving in community pharmacy, medication review and pharmaceutical care, drug utilization, pharmaceutical needs assessment, adverse drug reaction reporting and public health. I have held academic posts at the Robert Gordon University School of Pharmacy, where I was Reader in Clinical Pharmacy and also at Liverpool John Moores University School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, as Professor of Pharmacy Practice. In both these positions, I lead the Pharmacy Practice Research Group and this is now my main role here at Medway School of Pharmacy. I have worked in all fields of pharmacy: community, hospital, industry, primary care, strategic level, journalism and academia and also held honorary contracts in Public Health with Grampian Health Board and Sefton Primary Care Trust. I maintain strong links with Thailand, where I was visiting professor at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahasarakham University between 2007 and 2012 and have several MSc/PhD students working at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Khon Kaen University.
Overall my research is aimed at improving the experiences of people receiving both pharmaceutical services and medicines, with the aim of gaining maximum benefit and minimising detrimental effects. Community Pharmacy Services Much of my research activities have centred around the development and evaluation of novel public health services delivered from community pharmacies. I have been involved in developing services in both Scotland and England, ranging from the provision of free emergency hormonal contraception to screening for risky use of alcohol. Together with colleagues, I have used market research methodologies extensively to explore the views of the public on novel services. Our research repeatedly shows that, while government and pharmacy bodies in the UK strongly advocate the development of these novel services, the public are not aware that pharmacy has a role in public health, viewing them simply as providers of medicines. We believe that pharmacy needs to learn how to market these novel services and that research can inform this, to help change the public's attitudes towards community pharmacies. This will help to support the government's agenda of improving public health through early detection and intervention in behaviours likely to lead to poor health. Adverse Drug Reactions Patients' experiences of using medicines is my other main area of research, and I am particularly interested in adverse drug reactions. I was involved in evaluating patient reporting of ADRs through the UK's Yellow Card Scheme. More recently here at Medway we have analysed a large sample of patient reports submitted to this Scheme. We have also studied how patients identify ADRs and the sources of information they use to learn about ADRs. Medicines Optimisation Although medicines are the most widely used healthcare intervention and obviously have considerable benefits, little attention is paid to the impact which taking medicines can have on everyday lives of those expected to use them long term. Long-term medicines not only carry risks of ADRs, but can also result in the need for substantial effort to organise life around their use. For most people this becomes routine, but for some it creates problems which can have adverse consequences on overall quality of life. Together with colleagues I have developed a novel instrument to measure the burden of using long-term medicines, the Living with Medicines Questionnaire. This work shows some of the factors which affect perceptions of medicine burden and may be useful in helping to identify those with greatest potential to benefit from pharmacists interventions. Previous research includes several randomised controlled trials which have demonstrated that pharmaceutical care services provided by pharmacists can improve clinical outcomes. Publications Basey AJ, Krska J, Kennedy TD, Mackridge AJ. Delays and interruptions in the Acute Medical Unit clerking process – an observational study. J Roy Soc Med Open 2015; Corlett SA, Krska J. Evaluation of NHS Health Checks provided by community pharmacies. J Pub Health 2015; (in press) Dewsbury C, Rodgers RM, Krska J. Views of English pharmacists on public health services. Pharmacy 2015; 3: 154-168. DOI:10.3390/pharmacy3040154 Manfrin A, Thomas T, Krska J. Randomised evaluation of the Italian Medicines Use Review provided by community pharmacists using asthma as a model (RE I-MUR). BMC Health Services Research 2015, 15:171 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-015-0791-6 Krska J, duPlessis R, Chellaswamy H. Views of practice managers and general practitioners on implementing NHS Health Checks. Primary Health Care Research & Development 2015; 1-8 epub ahead of print DOI:10.1017/S1463423615000262 Krska J, duPlessis R, Chellaswamy H. Implementation of a high CV risk approach to NHS Health Checks: variation in processes, recording and immediate outcomes. Primary Health Care Research and Development 2015; doi:10.1017/S1463423615000493 Saramunee K, Krska J, Mackridge AJ, Richards J, Suttajit, S, Philips-Howard P. General public views on pharmacy public health services: current situation and opportunities in the future. Pub Health 2015; 129: 705-715 DOI: org/10.1016/j.puhe.2015.04.002 N Jarernsiripornkul, N Chaipichit, V Uchaipichata, J Krska. Development and preliminary testing of a self-assessment questionnaire about Adverse Drug Reactions for patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2015; DOI: 10.1002/pds.3871 Jarernsiripornkul N, Pasturee A, Krska J. Survey of patients' experiences and their certainty of suspected Adverse Drug Reactions. Int J Clin Pharm 2015; DOI 10.1007/s11096-014-0060-5 Jarernsiripornkul N, Chaipichit N, Krska J. Statin Adverse Effects: Patients' experiences and laboratory monitoring of muscle and liver injuries. Int J Clin Pharm 2015 doi: 10.1007/s11096-015-0068-5 Mackridge AJ, Krska J, Stokes EC, Heim D. Towards improving service delivery in screening and intervention services in community pharmacies: A case study of an alcohol IBA service. J Pub Health 2015 DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdv010 Jarernsiripornkul N, Chaipichit N, Chumworathayib P, Krska J. Strategies for improving Thai patients’ knowledge and understanding about drug allergy. Pharmacy Practice 2015; Jan-Mar 13(1): 513 Krska J, Morecroft CW, Poole H, Rowe PH. Measuring the impact of long-term medicines use from the patient perspective. Int J Clin Pharm 2014; 36: 675–678. DOI 10.1007/s11096-014-9970-5 Phaunpinit P, Jarernsiripornkul N, Pongwecharek J, Krska J. Hospital pharmacists’ role regarding the communication of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug risks to patients. Int J Clin Pharm 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-0018-7 Krska J, duPlessis R, Chellaswamy H. Views and experiences of the NHS Health Check provided by general medical practices: cross-sectional survey in high risk patients. J Public Health 2014; doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdu054 Chaipichit N, Krska J, Uchaipichat V, Pratiparnwat T Jarernsiripornkul N. A Qualitative study to Explore How Patients Identify and Assess Symptoms as Adverse Drug Reactions. Europ J Clin Pharmacol (in press) Krska J, Mackridge AJ. Development and testing of a feasible and desirable community pharmacy-based identification and brief advice service for alcohol. Public Health (in press) Krska J, Morecroft CW, Poole H, Rowe PH. The impact of using long-term medicines on quality of life: a qualitative study. Int J Clin Pharm 2013; 35(6):1161-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11096-013-9841-5 Basey AJ, Krska J, Mackridge AJ, Kennedy T. Prescribing errors on admission to hospital and their potential impact – a mixed methods study. BMJ Quality and Safety 2014;23:17-25 doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2013-001978 Inch J, Watson M C, Anakwe-Umeh S (on behalf of the YCS evaluation team). Patient versus healthcare professional spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting: a systematic review. Drug Safety 2012; 35(10): 807-818. Hazell L et al (on behalf of the YCS evaluation team). How do patients contribute to signal detection? : A retrospective analysis of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in the UK's Yellow Card Scheme. Drug Safety 2013; 36(3): 199-206 Krska J, Morecroft CW. Patients’ use of information about medicine side effects in relation to experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions. Drug Safety 2013; 36: 673-680. DOI: 10.1007/s40264-013-0065-3 Gray N et al 2012. Understanding and optimising an intervention/brief advice (IBA) about alcohol in the community pharmacy setting. Report available at: http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/5972/ Basey AJ, Krska J, Mackridge AJ, Kennedy T. Challenges in implementing government-managed guidance on VTE risk assessment. BMJ Open 2012; 2 e e001668. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001668 Krska J, Palmer S, Dalzell-Brown A, Nicholl P. Evaluation of welfare advice in primary care: effect on practice workload and prescribing for mental health. Primary Heath Care Research and Development 2013; 14(3):307-14. DOI: 10.1017/S1463423612000461 Krska J, Morecroft CW. Informing patients about medicines – a hospital in-patient survey in England. Patient Education and Counselling 2013; 90: 276-278 doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2012.09.011 Hackett A, Krska J. Is it time to regulate over the counter weight loss formulations? (opinion article) Int J Pharm Pract 2012; 20: 199-202. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00181.x Krska J, Allison K, Delargy M, Murray L, Smith H. Implementing a statin switching programme in primary care: Patients’ views and experiences. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 2012; 74(1):147-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04183.x Taylor JC, Krska J, Mackridge AJ. A community pharmacy-based cardiovascular screening service: views of service users and the public. Int J Pharm Pract 2012; 20: 277-284. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00190.x Jarernsiripornkul N, Senacom P, Uchaipicha V, Chaipichit N, Krska J. Patient reporting of suspected ADRs to anti-epileptic drugs in Thailand: factors affecting attribution accuracy. Epilepsy and Behaviour 2012; 24(1):102-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.03.023 Saramunee K, Krska J, Mackridge AJ, Richards J, Suttajit, S, Philips-Howard P. How to enhance the uptake of public health services in community pharmacy?: A qualitative study. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2012; DOI 10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.05.006 Krska J. Views of UK community pharmacists on direct patient reporting of ADRs through the Yellow Card Scheme. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013; 22(10):1130-3. DOI: 10.1002/pds.3306 Saramunee K, Chaiyasong S, Krska J. Public health roles for community pharmacy: contrasts and similarities between England and Thailand. Isan J Pharm Sci 2011 Fortnum H, Lee AJ, Rupnik B, Avery A; on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. Survey to assess public awareness of patient reporting of adverse drug reactions in Great Britain. J Clin Pharm Ther 2012; 37: 161-165 . doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01273.x. Tinelli M, Blenkinsopp A, Bond CM on the behalf of the Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Evaluation Team. Development, validation and application of a patient satisfaction scale for a community pharmacy medicines-management service. Int J Pharm Pract 2011; 19: 144-155 Anderson C, Gifford A, Avery AJ, Fortnum H, Murphy E, Krska J, Bond C on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. Assessing the usability of methods of public reporting of adverse drug reactions to the UK Yellow card Scheme. Health Expectations 2012; 15(4):433-40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2011.00686.x Krska J, Jones L, McKinney J, Wilson C. Medicines safety: experiences and perceptions of the general public in Liverpool. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011; 20(10): 1098-1103. DOI: 10.1002/pds.2178 Avery AJ, Anderson C, Bond CM, Fortnum H, Gifford A, Hannaford PC, Hazell L,Krska J, Lee AJ, McLernon DJ, Murphy E, Shakir S, Watson MC. Evaluation of Patient reporting to the Yellow Card Scheme. Final Report. Health Technology Assessment programme 2011; 15: 20. http://www.hta.ac.uk/project/1628.asp Anderson CA, Krska J, Murphy E, Avery AJ on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. The importance of direct patient reporting of ADRs: a patient perspective. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 2011 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03990.x Krska J, Anderson CA, Murphy E, Avery AJ on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. How Patient Reporters Identify Adverse Drug Reactions: A Qualitative Study of Reporting via the UK Yellow Card Scheme. Drug Saf 2011; 34(5): 429-436 doi: 10.2165/11589320-000000000-00000 McLernon DJ, Bond CM, Fortnum H, Hannaford PC, Krska J, Lee AJ, Watson MC, Avery AJ on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. Patient experience of reporting adverse drug reactions via the yellow card scheme in the UK.Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011; 20(5): 523-531 doi: 10.1002/pds.2117 McLernon DJ, Bond CM, Hannaford PC, Watson MC, Lee AJ, Hazell L, Avery AJ on behalf of the Yellow Card Study Collaboration. Adverse drug reaction reporting in the UK: A retrospective observational comparison of Yellow Card reports submitted by patients and healthcare professionals. Drug Saf 2010; 33: 775-788. doi: 10.2165/11536510-000000000-00000 Krska J, Morecroft CW. Views of the general public on the role of pharmacy in public health. J Pharm Health Serv Res 2010; 1(1): 33-38 Krska J, Rowe PH. Outcome measures: a sensitive approach. Int J Pharm Pract2010; 18: 125-127 Krska J, Lovelady C, Connolly D, Parmar S, Davies MJ. Community pharmacy services for weight management: Identifying opportunities Int J Pharm Pract 2010; 18: 7-12 Andronicou AM, Krska J, Hackett A, Richards J. Supply of over-the-counter weight loss products from community pharmacies. Int J Pharm Pract 2009; 17: 333-337 Jarernsiripornkul N, Krska J, Pongmanachai J, Nasritha N. Hospital pharmacists' activities and attitudes regarding the Thai Safety Monitoring Program for new drugs.Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009 18: 837-841 DOI: 10.1002/pds.1790 John DN, Krska J, Hansford D, Morecroft CW. How have the Pharmacy Practice Research Trust grants supported the development of research capacity? Int J Pharm Pract 2009; 17: 133-4. DOI 10.1211/ijpp/17.03.00xx Andronicou AM, Hackett A, Richards J, Krska J. Views and use of over-the-counter weight loss formulations among the general public. Int J Health Prom Edu 2009; 47 (2): 63-68 Jarernsiripornkul N, Chaisrisawadsuk S, Chaiyakum A, Krska J. Investigation of patient self-reporting of potential adverse drug reactions to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pharm World Sci 2009; 31: 559-564. DOI 10.1007/s11096-009-9310-3 Krska J. Smith H, Mitchell W, Roberts B, Lee YP. Medication reviews: Differences between health professionals. Pharmacoepidemol Drug Saf 2009; 18: 6-7. DOI: 10.1002/pds.1738 Jarernsiripornkul N, Kakaew W, Loalukkana W, Krska J. Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring: Comparing doctor and patient reporting for new drugs.Pharmacoepidemol Drug Saf 2009; 18: 240-245 DOI: 10.1002/pds.1708 Hansford D, Krska J, Gill D, McLaren J. A training package for primary care nurses in conducting medication reviews: their views and the resultant outputs. J Clin Nurs2008; 18: 1096-1104 Published Online: Oct 24 2008 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02448.x Bissell, P., Blenkinsopp, A., Short, D. and Mason, L. on behalf of the Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Evaluation Team (including Jaffray, M., Bond, C.M., Watson, M.C., Hannaford, P., Tinelli, M., Scott, A., Lee, A., Anderson, C., Avery, A. and Krska, J.) Patients' views and experiences of a medicines management service. Health and Social Care in the Community. 2008; 16: 363-9 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2524.2008.00749.x Krska J, Avery AJ on behalf of The Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Project Evaluation Team. Evaluation of medication reviews conducted by community pharmacists: a quantitative analysis of documented issues and recommendations.Brit J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65(3): 386-396. (also published early on-line8-Oct-2007 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03022.x ) Tinelli, M., Bond, C., Blenkinsopp, A., Jaffray, M., Watson, M. and Hannaford, P. on the behalf of the Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Evaluation Team (including Jaffray, M., Bond, C.M., Watson, M.C., Hannaford, P.,Tinelli, M., Scott, A., Lee, A., Blenkinsopp, A., Anderson, C., Avery, A., Bissell, P. and Krska, J.) Patients' experiences with a community pharmacy medications management service: focus on attitudes, expectations and satisfaction. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41: 1962-1970 Scott A, Tinelli M, Bond CM on behalf of the Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Evaluation Team (including Jaffray, M., Bond, C.M., Watson, M.C., Hannaford, P., Tinelli, M., Scott, A., Lee, A., Anderson, C., Avery, A. and Krska, J.) Costs of a community pharmacist-led medicines management service for patients with CHD in England: Health Care systems and patient perspectives.Pharmacoeconomics Vol 25 (5); 2007: 397-411 Jaffray M, Krska J, Bond CM, Lee A on behalf of The Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Project Evaluation Team. The MEDMAN project: Evaluation of the medicines management training for community pharmacists. Pharmacy Education 2007; 7(3): 207-214 Krska J, Hansford D, Seymour DG, Farquharson J. Is hospital admission a sufficiently sensitive outcome measure for evaluating medication review services? - A descriptive analysis of admissions within a randomised controlled trial. Int J Pharm Pract 2007; 15: 85-91 The Community Pharmacy Medicines Management Project Evaluation Team. The MEDMAN study: a randomized controlled trial of community pharmacy-led medicines management for patients with coronary heart disease. Family Practice2007; 24: 189-200 (April) doi: 10.1093/fampra/cml075 Krska J, Gill D, Hansford D. Can pharmacists help GPs to do better medication reviews? A pharmacist supported medication review training package for GPs: an evaluation of documented issues and outputs and a postal questionnaire of GP views. Med Educ 2006; 40: 1217-1225 Krska J, Ross SM, Watts M. Medication reviews provided by GPs and nurses: an evaluation of their quality. Int J Pharm Pract 2005; 13: 77-84 John DN, Krska J, Hansford D. Are customers requesting medicines by name less likely to be advised or referred? Provision of over-the-counter H2 receptor antagonists and alginate products from pharmacies. Int J Pharm Pract 2003; 11: 33-39 Jarernsiripornkul N, Krska J, Capps PAG, Richards RME. Patient reporting of adverse drug reactions: useful information for pain management? Europ J Pain2003; 7: 219-24 Krska J, Ross SM. Prioritising the work of a practice pharmacist. Pharmacy in Practice 2002: 12: 101-106 Krska J, Hansford D, Jamieson D, Arris F, Cromarty JA, Abbott S, McGuire A. A classification system for issues identified in pharmaceutical care practice. Int J Pharm Pract 2002; 10: 91-100 Jarernsiripornkul N, Krska J, Capps PAG, Richards RME, Lee A. Patient reporting of potential adverse drug reactions: A methodological study. Brit J Clin Pharmacol2002: 53: 318-25 Krska J, Veitch GBA. Providing pharmaceutical care - the views of Scottish pharmacists. Pharm J 2001; 267: 549-55 Krska J, Veitch GBA. Perceived factors influencing the development of primary care-based pharmaceutical care in Scotland. Int J Pharm Pract 2001; 9: 243-52 Krska J, Cromarty JA, Arris F, Jamieson D, Hansford D, Duffus PRS, Downie G, Seymour DG. Pharmacist-led medication review in patients over 65: A randomized, controlled trial in primary care. Age Ageing 2001; 30: 215-21 Krska J, Duffus PRS. Pharmaceutical needs assessment in general practice. Int J Pharm Pract 2000; 8: 265-274 Krska J, Cromarty JA, Arris F, Jamieson D, Hansford D. Providing pharmaceutical care using a systematic approach. Pharm J 2000; 265: 656-660 Krska J, John DN, Hansford D, Kennedy EJ. Drug utilization evaluation of non-prescription H2-receptor antagonists and alginate-containing preparations for dyspepsia. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49: 1-6